Treaties

Below is a timeline reviewing the treaties relevant to the Cherokee Nation’s accounting claims.

November 28, 1785 – Treaty of Hopewell: Acknowledged protection provided by the United States, restricted settlement on Cherokee land and called for peace.

July 2, 1791 – Treaty of Holston: Established terms of relations between the United States and the Cherokee. It acknowledged protection provided by the United States and set certain boundaries. It also restricted settlement on Cherokee land and called for peace.

February 17, 1792 – Treaty of Philadelphia: Amended the Treaty of Holston to increase the annual payment for the lands ceded at Holston from $1,000 to $1,500.

June 26, 1794 – Treaty of Philadelphia: Amended the Treaty of Holston and required the land ceded to be mapped and increased the payment for the lands ceded.

November 8, 1794 – Treaty of Tellico Blockhouse: Ended the Chickamauga wars and reviewed boundaries previously established.

October 2, 1798 – Treaty of Tellico: Acknowledged that boundaries previously set had not been marked properly so white settlers could enter Cherokee land. It renewed the commitment to peace and ceded land in exchange for protection by the United States and certain payments.

October 24, 1804 – Treaty of Tellico: Ceded land to the United States for certain payments.

October 25, 1805 – Treaty of Tellico: Ceded land to the United States for certain payments, including annuity payments.

October 27, 1805 – Treaty of Tellico: Ceded land to the United States for the creation of State Assembly of Tennessee for certain payments.

January 7, 1806 – Treaty of Washington: Ceded land to the United States for certain payments. United States agreed to resolve border disputes and secure title to certain reservations for Cherokees.

September 11, 1807 – Convention with the Cherokee Nation: Clarifies lands ceded by the Treaty of Washington in 1806. The treaty granted to the Cherokee hunting access to certain lands until they became too full of settlers to use.

March 22, 1816 – Treaties of Washington: Ceded land in South Carolina and the United States and promised to make certain payments to the Cherokee.

March 22, 1816 – Treaty with Cherokee: Attempted to resolve boundary disputes between Creek and Cherokee on the Coosa River and established a way to mark the boundary. The United States also resolved to pay damages for losses incurred in the Creek Wars.

September 14, 1816 – Treaty of Chickasaw Council House: Land was ceded by the Cherokee Nation, and their western boundary was established. The United States committed to certain payments to the Cherokee Nation.

July 18, 1817 – Treaty of the Cherokee Agency: First Cherokee Treaty of Removal providing financial incentive to move west and requiring those who stayed east to become citizens of the state in which they lived.

February 27, 1819 – Treaty of Washington: Reaffirmed the Treaty of the Cherokee Agency of 1817, with a few added provisions specifying certain land was reserved for the Cherokee Nation in trust and was to be sold and managed for the benefit of the Nation.

May 6, 1828 – Treaty of Washington: Guaranteed members of the Cherokee Nation west of the Mississippi seven million acres of land and a “perpetual outlet” west as far “as the sovereignty of the United States” extends. It also provided that the United States was to make certain payments to the Cherokee Nation.

February 14, 1833 – Treaty of Fort Gibson: Resolved the boundary line dispute between Cherokee Nation and Creek Nation.

March 14, 1835 – Unratified Agreement with the Cherokee of 1835: Never ratified, this would have provided for the removal of remaining Cherokees to the present day treaty territory in what is now Oklahoma.

August 24, 1835 – Treaty of Camp Homes: Granted hunting and trapping access to the Cherokee Nation along the prairie of the United States.

December 29, 1835 – Treaty of New Echota: States that lands were ceded in Georgia for territory in Oklahoma and for certain payments by the United States.

August 6, 1846 – Treaty of Washington: The United States had mismanaged certain funds under the Treaty of New Echota, so this treaty arranged for how the United States would account for the monies.

July 19, 1866 – Treaty of 1866: Granted amnesty to Cherokees and established boundaries and settlements for various individuals.

April 28, 1868 – Treaty of Washington: Acts as a supplement to the Treaty of 1866 and ceded the Neutral Lands for certain payments.